Thursday, 16 February 2012

Flash Back

Kings and emperors of the world.What was our world since the last country got independence. 

Tuesday, 27 December 2011

Non Members

There are 6 non members in the United Nations and they are

1.Turkish Cyprus, officially known as the Northern Cyprus
The Turkish controlled area of Northern Cyprus unilaterally declared independence in 1983. And it has been named 'Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus.Northern Cyprus takes place in a framework of a semi-presidential representative democratic republic, whereby the President is head of state and the Prime Minister head of government, and of a multi-party system. Executive power is exercised by the government. Legislative power is vested in both the government and the Assembly of the Republic. The Judiciary is independent of the executive and the legislature.
The president is elected for a five-year term. The current president is Derviş Eroğlu who won the presidential elections on 18 April 2010. The legislature is the Assembly of the Republic, which has 50 members elected by proportional representation from five electoral districts. The republic is not internationally recognized although it does have trade relation with some countries. Islam and Christianity are the major religions 
Capital: Nicosia
Language: Turkish
Area: 3355
Population:264,172 (2006)
Flag and Map of Turkish Cyprus 
2. Republic of Kosovo
Kosovo is an improvised territory with population of mainly ethnic Albanians,unilaterally declared independence from Serbia in 2008 on the month of February. Also the country is known as the New Born Baby of Europe.
Kosovo immediately won recognition from United States and major European countries. But Serbia,with the help of Russia, has vowed to block Kosovo from getting  United Nations entry ticket.Islam, Serbian Orthodox and Roman Catholic are the major religions. The current president is Atifete Jahjaga since 7th April 2011. The term of president is 5 years and renewable only once. 
   Capital: Pristina
Languages: Albanian, Serbian, Bosniak, Turkish and Roma
Area: 10857
Population: 2,126,708

Flag and Map of Kosovo
3. Palestine
Palestine is not consider as an country by United States and Israel. The historical declaration of an independent Palestine comprising West Bank of river Jordan and Gaza strip was made by Yasser Arafat, leader of Palestine Liberation Organisation (PLO) on November 15 of 1988 in Algiers.
Yasser Arafat, 
 PLO was founded in 1964 to express the nationalist aspirations of Palestinian Arabs. In 1974, the UN granted the permanent observer status and in 1976 it become Member of Arab league.
About 80 nations including INDIA immediately recognized the new nation, which was born out of struggle extending over forty years. Israel and USA will not allow the new country and USA will oppose the entry of Palestine to UN by using the special power in the Security Council.          
Flag and Map of Palestine 
4. Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic
The Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic is also known as the S.A.D.R. SADR set up by the Polisario Front, a liberation movement in Western Sahara, is territory that came under Morocco's control after Spain withdrew. Algeria supported the Polisario-led struggle for independence. India accorded recognition to the new government on October 1, 1985. It still remain as a partially recognized state. The rulers of SADR are President Mohamed Abdelaziz and Prime Minister Abdelkader Taleb Oumar
 The United Nations will conduct a referendum in Western Sahara on whether the territory should become independent or remain part of Morocco.
Capital: El-Alaiun
Language: Arabic
Area: 266,000
Population: 382,617

Flag and Map of Sahrawi Arab Demo.Rep
5.Taiwan, officially known as Republic of China
The Taiwan is off southeast coast of China and formerly known as Formosa, includes the island of Taiwan, two offshore island Quemoy and Matsu, and the near by islets of the Pescadores chain.
Chiang Kai Shek
The Taiwan and adjoining areas where originally Chinese territory. In 1950, Chiang Kai Shek made Taiwan the headquarters of the Nationalist Republic of China. Although Taiwan still claims to be the legal government of China it lost its seat in the United Nations and its permanent status of UN Security Council to Communist China in1971. In 1987, martial law was lifted after 38 years and in 1991, the 43 year period of emergency rule ended. In May 1996 Lee Teng-Hui stormed to resounding victory in the island's first presidential election.The current president is Ma Ying-jeou and the Prime minister is Yoshiro Mori
The Taiwan is officially known as the Republic of China and the China is officially known as the People's Republic of China. And China is the cross to the entrance of Taiwan to the United Nations. Buddhism, Confucianism and Taoism are the major religions in Taiwan      
Capital: Taipei
Languages: Mandarin Chinese, Taiwan and Hakka dialects
Area: 35,981
Population: 22,974,347

Flag and Map of Taiwan
6.Vatican City
The Vatican is the smallest independent nation in this world and the residence of the spiritual leadership of Roman Catholic Church. Its territory is completely surrounded by Italian capital Rome.
Vatican City the city of the Pope, includes St. Peters Cathedral, Vatican Palace and museum, The Vatican Gardens and neighbouring buildings.Vatican has its own railway station (for freights only), postal system, police, coins and radio. The religion in Vatican is Roman Catholic. The Vatican is known as the capital of
Roman Catholic
The city is governed by a commission by the Pope, who has full legal, executive and judicial powers. The state's supreme pontiff is Pope and the current Pope is Cardinal Joseph Ratzinger commonly known as Pope Benedict XVI. The Government type of Vatican is Ecclesiastical.
Pope Benedict XVI
Capital: Vatican City
Languages: Latin and Italian
Area: 0.4
Population: 900

Flag and Map of Vatican 


There is lot of Agencies under the control of United Nations, They may be agencies of social, economical, scientific or technology fields. All are related to U.N.O by special agreement of U.N Charter.
Some of the organisations or agencies of U.N is here

  1. International Labor Organisation (ILO) - Geneva , from 1919
  2. International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) - Vienna, from 1945
  3. Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) - Rome, from 1945
  4. United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) - Paris, from 1946
  5. World Health Organization (WHO) - Geneva, from 1948
  6. International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD) - Washington, from 1945 
  7. World Meteorological Organization (WMO) - Geneva, from 1950
  8. Inter government Maritime Consultative Organisation (IMCO) - London, from 1958
  9. United Nations International Children's Emergency Fund (UNICEF) - New York, from 1946
  10. World Trade Organisation (WTO) - Geneva, from 1948
  11. United Nations Development Program (UNDP) - New York, from 1965
  12. United Nations Environmental Program (UNEP) - Nairobi, from 1972
  13. United Nations Fund for Population Activation (UNFPA) - New York, from 1967
  14. United Nations High Commission for Refugees (UNHCR) - Geneva, from 1950
  15. United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO) - Vienna, from 1967
  16. International Development Association (IDA) - Washington, from 1960
  17. International Finance Corporation (IFC) -  Washington, from 1955
  18. International Monetary Fund (IMF) -  Washington, from 1945
  19. International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) - Montreal, from 1947
  20. Universal Postal Union (UPU) - Bern, from 1947
  21. International Telecommunication Union (ITU) - Geneva, from 1947
  22. International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD) - Rome, from 1977
  23. United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) - Geneva, from 1964
  24. United Nations Institute for Training and Research (UNITAR) - New York, from 1965
  25. United Nations Relief and Work for Palestine Refugees in the West Asia (UNRWA) - New York, from 1967  


The Secretariat of United nations consist of Secretariat members and a head Secretary General who leads the whole United Nations Organisation. The Secretary General is elected by General Assembly on the basis of Security Council nomination. The period of Secretary General is 5 years and can be reelected. International staffs are appointed by Secretary General under the regulation established by General Assembly. The high commissioner for refugees and the managing director of the fund  and theSecretary General are appointed by the General Assembly. There is almost 44000 international civil members responsible to work for U.N, and U.N gives the salary to them. The day to day working of U.N is controlled by Secretariat.The duties carried out by the Secretariat are as varied as the problems dealt with by the United Nations. These range from administering peacekeeping operations to mediating international disputes, from surveying economic and social trends and problems to preparing studies on human rights and sustainable development.
Structure of Secretariat 
 The headquarters of  Secretariat is at U.N plaza New York. The United Nations, while headquartered in New York, maintains a significant presence in Addis Ababa, Bangkok, Beirut, Geneva, Nairobi, Santiago and Vienna, and has offices all over the world.
From 2007 Ban Ki Moon of South Korea is the Secretary General of the United Nations Organisation
Ban Ki Moon 
  1. Trygve Lie (Norway) - Term of Office: 1946-1952 
  2. Dag Hammarskjöld (Sweden) - Term of Office: 1953-1961
  3. U Thant (Myanmar) - Term of Office: 1961-1971 
  4. Kurt Waldheim (Austria) - Term of Office: 1972-1981 
  5. Javier Perez de Cuellar (Peru) - Term of Office: 1982-1991
  6. Boutros Boutros-Ghali (Egypt) - Term of Office: 1992-1996
  7. Kofi A. Annan (Ghana) - Term of Office: 1997-2006

Trusteeship Council

The Trusteeship Council is an international trusteeship system to safeguard the interests of the inhabitants of territories which are not yet fully self-governing and which may be placed there under by trusteeship agreements, and they are called as the trust territories. Int hat 5 permanent members, the countries holding trust territories and some more members to equalize ration of trust territory holding nation and non holding nation. There will two meetings annually.The center of council is at New York of USA
The permanent members are

  1. China
  2. France
  3. Russia
  4. UK
  5. USA

The main function of Trusteeship Council is to protects the  needs of peoples living in trust territories. But in other way only 10 of total 411 trust territories are joined a nation or made independent. But the Trusteeship Council is inactive from 1 st November 1994 after the independence of Palau, the last remaining United Nations trust territory (on October of same year).

International Court Of Justice

Peace Palace, The Hague

ICJ or International Court Of Justice is located at the peace palace The Hague of Netherlands. But the urgent meeting can hold anywhere else. International Court of Justice was created by an international treaty, the statue of the court, which forms an integral part of the United Nations Charter. All members of the U.N.O are parties to the statue of the court.
There is 15 judges elected by the General Assembly and Security Council of United Nations. And there will not be 2 judges from same country. Term of a judge is 9 years and they are able to reelection. The President and Vice-President are elected by General Assembly on the basis of Security Council nomination for the period of 3 year. The court continues permanently in session. All questions are decided by majority. The languages used in the court are English or French. ICJ where established in 1945, the Court began work in 1946 as the successor to the Permanent Court of International Justice.

Current Judges
Hisashi Owada of Japan is  the President and
Peter Tomka of  Slovakia is the Vice-President
Other members are
  1. Abdul G. Koroma of Sierra Leone
  2. Awn Shawkat Al-Khasawneh of Jordan
  3. Bruno Simma of Germany
  4. Ronny Abraham of France
  5. Sir Kenneth Keith of New Zealand
  6. Bernardo Sepúlveda Amor of Mexico
  7. Mohamed Bennouna  of Morocco
  8. Leonid Skotnikov of Russia
  9. Antônio Augusto Cançado Trindade of Brazil
  10. Abdulqawi Yusuf of Somalia
  11. Sir Christopher John Greenwood of United Kingdom
  12. Xue Hanqin of China
  13. Joan Donoghue of United States
Functions Of ICJ
It gives the legal advice to the agencies and councils when they demand it. Also the problems presented by countries are solved by ICJ. 

Emblem of ICJ

Economic And Social Council

The Economic And Social Council is also called as ECOSOC (ECO-Economic,SO-Social and C-Council)
It is a 54 members council selected by 2/3 majority system of General Assembly. It is responsible for carrying out the functions of the United Nations with regards to international economics, social, cultural, educational, health and related matters. The members term is up to three year.Seats on the Council are based on geographical representation with
  1. 14 allocated to African states
  2. 11 to Asian states
  3. 6 to East European states
  4. 10 to Latin American and Caribbean states 
  5. 13 to West European and other states.
ECOSOC holds a four-week session each year in July. Since 1998, it has also held a meeting each April with finance ministers heading key committees of the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund (IMF). The ECOSOC serves as the central forum for discussing international economic and social issues, and for formulating policy recommendations addressed to member states and the United Nations system.

Under the council there is 5 regional counciles
  • United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (ECE) - Geneva, Switzerland
  • United Nations Economic Commission for Africa (ECA) - Addis Ababa, Ethiopia 
  • United Nations Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC) - Santiago, Chile
  • United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) - Bangkok, Thailand
  • United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia (ESCWA) - Amman, Jordan

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